In vitro: Tenofovir shows cytotoxic effects on cell viability in HK-2 cells, with IC50 values of 9.21 and 2.77 μM at 48 and 72 h in MTT assay, respectively. Tenofovir diminishes ATP levels in HK-2 cells. Tenofovir (3.0 to 28.8 μM) increases oxidative stress and protein carbonylation in HK-2 cells. Furthermore, Tenofovir induces apoptosis in HK-2 cells, and that apoptosis is induced via mitochondrial damage. Tenofovir and M48U1 formulated in 0.25% HEC each inhibits the replication of both R5-tropic HIV-1BaL and X4-tropic HIV-1IIIb in activated PBMCs, and inhibits several laboratory strains and patient-derived HIV-1 isolates. The combined formulation of M48U1 and tenofovir in 0.25% HEC exhibits synergistic antiretroviral activity against infection with R5-tropic HIV-1BaL, and is not toxic to PBMCs.
In vivo: Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate (20, 50, 140, or 300 mg/kg) administered to BLT mice, shows dose dependent activity during vaginal HIV challenge in BLT humanized mice. Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate (50, 140, 300 mg/kg) significantly reduces HIV transmission in BLT mice. Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate (0.5, 1.5, or 5.0 mg/kg/day, p.o.) induces a dose-dependent decline in serum viremia in woodchucks chronically infected with WHV. Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate administration is safe and effective in the woodchuck model of chronic HBV infection.
|Cell lines||MT-2 cells and MT-4 cells|
|Preparation method||Controls containing untreated infected cells and infected cells treated with 300 μM tenofovir were included in each assay plate, representing 0% and 100% inhibition, respectively.|
|Incubation time||5 d|
|Animal models||Adult male Wistar rats|
|Dosages||600 mg/ kg body weight|
|Solubility (25°C)||38 mg/mL in DMSO|
Powder -20°C 3 years ; 4°C 2 years
In solvent -80°C 6 months ; -20°C 1 month
|Body Surface Area (m2)||0.007||0.025||0.15||0.05||0.02||0.5|
|Animal A (mg/kg) = Animal B (mg/kg) multiplied by||Animal B Km|
|Animal A Km|
For example, to modify the dose of Compound A used for a mouse (20 mg/kg) to a dose based on the BSA for a rat, multiply 20 mg/kg by the Km factor for a mouse and then divide by the Km factor for a rat. This calculation results in a rat equivalent dose for Compound A of 10 mg/kg.
 Callebaut C, et al. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. In Vitro Virology Profile of Tenofovir Alafenamide, a Novel Oral Prodrug of Tenofovir with Improved Antiviral Activity Compared to That of Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate.
 Abraham P, et al. J Biomed Sci. Depletion of the cellular antioxidant system contributes to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate - induced mitochondrial damage and increased oxido-nitrosative stress in the kidney.
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