Fostamatinib (R788) is a prodrug of the active compound tamatinib (R-406), which is an inhibitor of the enzyme spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk). R788 (Fostamatinib) effectively inhibits BCR signaling in vivo, resulting in reduced proliferation and survival of the malignant B cells and significantly prolonged survival of the treated animals. R788 also inhibits the anti-IgE-induced production and release of LTC4 and cytokines and chemokines, including TNFα, IL-8 and GM-CSF. R788 (Fostamatinib) induces apoptosis of the majority of examined DLBCL cell lines. Fostamatinib is orally bioavailable and was well tolerated in phase I and II trials, with the most common side effect being gastrointestinal symptoms. Fostamatinib is currently in phase III clinical trials for rheumatoid arthritis and phase II trials for autoimmune thrombocytopenia and lymphoma.
|Source||Blood (2010). Figure 2.R788|
|Cell Lines||TCL1 leukemia cells|
|Incubation Time||24, 48, and 72 h|
|Results||As shown in Figure 2, a modest decrease in the percentage of viable (annexin V/PI negative) cells was observed at the highest R406 concentrations.|
|Cell lines||Cultured human mast cells (CHMC)|
|Preparation method||Human Mast Cell Culture and Stimulation.
Cultured human mast cells (CHMC) were derived from cord blood CD34+ progenitor cells and grown, primed, and stimulated as described previously (Rossi et al., 2006) and shown in supplemental data. Before stimulation, cells were incubated with R406 or DMSO for 30 min. Cells were then stimulated with either 0.25 to 2 mg/ml anti-IgE or anti-IgG or 2 μM ionomycin. For tryptase measurement, ∼1500 cells per well were stimulated for 30 min in modified Tyrode's buffer. For LTC4 and cytokine production, 100,000 cells per well were stimulated for 1 or 7 h, respectively. Tryptase activity was measured by luminescence readout of a peptide substrate, and LTC4 and cytokines were measured using Luminex multiplex technology.
|Incubation time||30 min|
|Animal models||K/BxN Model Arthritis induced in C57BL/6 mice|
|Formulation||35% TPGS, 60% PEG 400, and 5% propylene glycol|
|Dosages||5 and 10mg/kg b.i.d for 13 days|
|Body Surface Area (m2)||0.007||0.025||0.15||0.05||0.02||0.5|
|Animal A (mg/kg) = Animal B (mg/kg) multiplied by||Animal B Km|
|Animal A Km|
For example, to modify the dose of Compound A used for a mouse (20 mg/kg) to a dose based on the BSA for a rat, multiply 20 mg/kg by the Km factor for a mouse and then divide by the Km factor for a rat. This calculation results in a rat equivalent dose for Compound A of 10 mg/kg.
|Solubility||DMSO 96 mg/mL|
 Suljagic M, et al. Blood. The Syk inhibitor fostamatinib disodium (R788) inhibits tumor growth in the Eμ- TCL1 transgenic mouse model of CLL by blocking antigen-dependent B-cell receptor signaling.
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GSK2646264 is a potent and selective splenic tyrosine kinase (Syk) inhibitor with a pIC50 value of 7.1. GSK2646264 also inhibited other kinases, with pIC50 values of 5.4, 5.4, 5.3, 5, 4.5, <4.6 and <4.3 for LCK, LRRK2, GSK3β, JAK2, VEGFR2, Aurora B and Aurora A, respectively. GSK2646264 penetrates into the epidermis and dermis of the skin.
Lanraplenib (GS-9876, GS-SYK) is a potent, highly selective and orally active inhibitor of Spleen Tyrosine Kinase (SYK) with IC50 of 9.5 nM. Lanraplenib inhibits SYK activity in platelets via the glycoprotein VI (GPVI) receptor without prolonging bleeding time (BT) in monkeys or humans.
SRX3207 is an orally active dual inhibitor of Syk-PI3K with IC50 of 39.9 nM, 31200 nM, 3070 nM, 3070 nM, 244 nM, 388 nM, 9790 nM for Syk, Zap70, BRD41, BRD42, PI3K alpha, PI3K delta, PI3K gamma, respectively. SRX3207 blocks tumor immunosuppression and increases anti-tumor immunity.
RO9021 potently inhibits SYK kinase activity with an average IC50 of 5.6 nM and suppresses B-cell receptor signaling.
WAY-321341 is a syk inhibitor
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