NE 52-QQ57 is an orally available GPR4 antagonist with an IC50 of 70 nM. NE 52-QQ57 significantly inhibited the AGE-induced increased expression of several key inflammatory cytokines and signaling molecules, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The GPR4 antagonist NE 52-QQ57 effectively blocked GPR4-mediated cAMP accumulation (IC50 26.8 nM in HEK293 cells). In HUVEC which natively express GPR4, physiological acidification (pH 7.4-7.0) resulted in a cAMP increase by ∼55% which was completely prevented by 1 μM NE 52-QQ57. The main extracellular organic acid, l-lactic acid (LL; 1-10 mM), suppressed pH dependent activation of GPR4 in HEK293 and HUVEC cells, suggesting allosteric negative modulation. In unanaesthetised mice and rats, NE 52-QQ57 (20 mg kg-1) reduced ventilatory response to 5 and 10% CO2. In anaesthetised rats, systemic administration of NE 52-QQ57 (up to 20 mg kg-1) had no effect on hemodynamics, cerebral blood flow and blood oxygen level dependent responses. Central administration of NE 52-QQ57 (1 mM) in vagotomised anaesthetised rats did not affect CO2-induced respiratory responses.
|Solubility (25°C)||DMSO ≥ 5 mg/mL|
Powder -20°C 3 years ; 4°C 2 years
In solvent -80°C 6 months ; -20°C 1 month
|Body Surface Area (m2)||0.007||0.025||0.15||0.05||0.02||0.5|
|Animal A (mg/kg) = Animal B (mg/kg) multiplied by||Animal B Km|
|Animal A Km|
For example, to modify the dose of Compound A used for a mouse (20 mg/kg) to a dose based on the BSA for a rat, multiply 20 mg/kg by the Km factor for a mouse and then divide by the Km factor for a rat. This calculation results in a rat equivalent dose for Compound A of 10 mg/kg.
 Haochuan Liu, et al. Chem Res Toxicol. Antagonism of GPR4 with NE 52-QQ57 and the Suppression of AGE-Induced Degradation of Type II Collagen in Human Chondrocytes
 P S Hosford, et al. Neuropharmacology . CNS distribution, signalling properties and central effects of G-protein coupled receptor 4
 Juraj Velcicky, et al. J Med Chem . Development of Selective, Orally Active GPR4 Antagonists with Modulatory Effects on Nociception, Inflammation, and Angiogenesis
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