In vitro: NCB-0846 blocks Wnt signalling and shows marked anti-tumour and anti-CSC activities. NCB-0846 binds to TNIK in an inactive conformation, and this binding mode seems to be essential for Wnt inhibition. NCB-0846 shows inhibitory activity against TNIK with an half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 21 nM. It also inhibits FLT3, JAK3, PDGFRα, TRKA, CDK2/CycA2, and HGK (>80% at 0.1 μM). NCB-0846 induces faster migration of TCF4 phosphorylated by TNIK within a concentration range of 0.1-0.3 μM and completely inhibits the phosphorylation of TCF4 at a concentration of 3 μM. Furthermore, NCB-0846 blocks the auto-phosphorylation of TNIK. NCB-0846 inhibits the TCF/LEF transcriptional activity of Wnt3a-treated HEK293 and HCT116 (carrying CTNNB1 mutation) and DLD-1 (carrying APC mutation) colorectal cancer cells. NCB-0846 reduces the expression of the Wnt target genes AXIN2 and MYC as well as that of TNIK, but the expression of CCND1 is not affected. NCB-0846 also reduces the expression of TNIK, AXIN2 and cMYC at the protein level. LRP6 and LRP5 are also downregulated by NCB-0846. NCB-0846 can inhibit cancer cell growth in vitro. NCB-0846 induces an increase in the sub-G1 cell population. NCB-0846 can downregulate the expression of putative colorectal CSC markers: CD44, CD133, and aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 (ALDH1), and reduce the proportion of cells showing high expression of CSC surface markers (CD44, CD133, CD166, CD29 and EpCAM). NCB-0846 also reduces the expression of mesenchymal markers (Slug, Snail, Twist, Smad2 and Vimentin). However, embryonal stem cell markers (Oct4, Nanog and Sox2) are not affected. In vivo: NCB-0846 suppresses Wnt-driven intestinal tumorigenesis in Apcmin/+ mice and the sphere- and tumour-forming activities of colorectal cancer cells. The body weight of mice (immunodeficient tumor xenografts) falls at the beginning of NCB-0846 administration, but gradually recover. The expression of Wnt-target genes (AXIN2, MYC and CCND1) in xenografts is reduced following the administration of NCB-0846. NCB-0846 dose dependently reduces the multiplicity and dimensions of tumours that developed in the small intestine. NCB-0846 significantly suppresses the growth of the PDXs (patient-derived xenografts) established from the two patients in two more clinically relevant mouse models.
|Cell lines||HCT116 cells|
|Preparation method||HCT116 cells are cultured in the presence of DMSO (vehicle), 1 μM NCB-0846, or 1 μM NCB-0970 for 4 or 24 h and then analysed by immunoblotting with anti-phosphorylated TNIK, anti-TNIK, and anti-γ-tubulin (loading control) antibodies.|
|Incubation time||4 or 24 h|
|Animal models||Immunodeficient mice (background-BALB/c nude mice)|
|Formulation||DMSO/polyethylene glycol#400/30% 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin solution (10:45:45, v/v)|
|Dosages||40 or 80 mg/kg BID|
|Administration||by oral gavage|
|Body Surface Area (m2)||0.007||0.025||0.15||0.05||0.02||0.5|
|Animal A (mg/kg) = Animal B (mg/kg) multiplied by||Animal B Km|
|Animal A Km|
For example, to modify the dose of resveratrol used for a mouse (22.4 mg/kg) to a dose based on the BSA for a rat, multiply 22.4 mg/kg by the Km factor for a mouse and then divide by the Km factor for a rat. This calculation results in a rat equivalent dose for resveratrol of 11.2 mg/kg.
|Solubility||75 mg/mL in DMSO|
Emergence of TNIK inhibitors in cancer therapeutics.
Yamada T, et al. Cancer Sci. 2017 May;108(5):818-823. PMID: 28208209.
TNIK inhibition abrogates colorectal cancer stemness.
Masuda M, et al. Nat Commun. 2016 Aug 26;7:12586. PMID: 27562646.
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