In vitro: Epothilone D (KOS-862) is a more potent microtubule stabilizer in vitro than epothilone A or B. In vitro, Epothilone D has shown potent cytotoxicity in a panel of human tumor cell lines, with similar potency to paclitaxel. Epothilone D also shows a definite advantage over paclitaxel in drug-resistant cell lines, and retained its cytotoxicity against a multidrug resistant cell line over-expressing P-glycoprotein. Epothilone D (EpoD) is a microtubules (MTs)-stabilizing agent.
In vivo: To evaluate whether Epothilone D (EpoD) improves MT and axonal function in PS19 mice, groups of 3-month old male PS19 mice received weekly i.p. injections of vehicle or Epothilone D (1 mg/kg or 3 mg/kg) for a total of 3 months. In addition, 3-month old non-Tg littermates received 3 mg/kg Epothilone D or vehicle. The 3 mg/kg Epothilone D dose corresponds to ~10-fold less than that used in a Phase II clinical study, which should minimize side-effects such as neutropenia that are observed with MT-stabilizing drugs in human subjects. PS19 and WT mice that receive Epothilone D show no signs of drug intolerance. Indeed, all drug-treated mice exhibited weight gain that is indistinguishable from vehicle-treated animals. Likewise, relative organ weights are similar in vehicle- and Epothilone D-treated mice. The motor performance of Epothilone D-treated mice, assessed using a standard rotarod test, is not significantly different from vehicle-treated cohorts. Finally, although there is minor group-to-group variability, there are no significant differences in white blood cell counts or neutrophil content between any of the treatment cohorts. Thus, the low doses of Epothilone D utilized in these studies appeared to be well tolerated.
|Formulation||dissolved in 100% DMSO and diluted with saline or PBS|
|Body Surface Area (m2)||0.007||0.025||0.15||0.05||0.02||0.5|
|Animal A (mg/kg) = Animal B (mg/kg) multiplied by||Animal B Km|
|Animal A Km|
For example, to modify the dose of resveratrol used for a mouse (22.4 mg/kg) to a dose based on the BSA for a rat, multiply 22.4 mg/kg by the Km factor for a mouse and then divide by the Km factor for a rat. This calculation results in a rat equivalent dose for resveratrol of 11.2 mg/kg.
|Solubility||10 mM in DMSO|
Highly Efficient CYP167A1 (EpoK) dependent Epothilone B Formation and Production of 7-Ketone Epothilone D as a New Epothilone Derivative.
Kern F, et al. Sci Rep. 2015 Oct 8;5:14881. PMID: 26445909.
The microtubule-stabilizing drug Epothilone D increases axonal sprouting following transection injury in vitro.
Brizuela M, et al. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2015 May;66(Pt B):129-40. PMID: 25684676.
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