AC220 (Quizartinib) is a orally-administered, potent and selective inhibitor of two receptor tyrosine kinases, FLT3 and KIT. AC220 is currently in a Phase 2 clinical study in the relapsed/refractory AML patient population with internal tandem duplication (ITD positive) activating mutations of the FLT3 kinase (FLT3-ITD positive). AC220 (Quizartinib) exhibits low nanomolar potency in biochemical and cellular assays and exceptional kinase selectivity, and in animal models is efficacious at doses as low as 1 mg/kg given orally once daily. While other agents showed some ability to clear leukemia from the circulating blood, AC220 has shown significant ability to clear leukemic cells from the bone marrow, where the disease originates. AC220-resistant FLT3 kinase domain mutants represent high-value targets for future FLT3 inhibitor development efforts.
|Cell lines||MV4-11 and RS4;11 cells|
|Preparation method||Cellular assays. MV4-11 and RS4;11 cells were cultured in Iscove media with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) and RPMI complete with 10% FBS, respectively. For proliferation assays, cells were cultured overnight in low serum media (0.5% FBS), then seeded in a 96-well plate at 40 000 cells per well. Inhibitors were added to the cells and incubated at 37°C for 72 hours. Cell viability was measured using the Cell Titer-Blue Cell Viability Assay from Promega. To measure inhibition of FLT3 autophosphorylation, cells were cultured in low serum media (0.5% FBS) overnight and seeded at a density of 400 000 cells per well in a 96-well plate the following day. The cells were incubated with inhibitors for 2 hours at 37°C. To induce FLT3 autophosphorylation in RS4;11 cells, 100 ng/mL FLT3 ligand (R&D Systems) was added for 15 minutes after the 2-hour compound incubation. Cell lysates were prepared and incubated in 96-well plates precoated with a total FLT3 capture antibody (R&D Systems). The coated plates were incubated with either a biotinylated antibody against FLT3 (R&D Systems) to detect total FLT3 or an antibody against phosphotyrosines (Millipore) to detect FLT3 autophosphorylation. In both cases, a SULFO-tagged streptavidin secondary antibody was used for electrochemiluminescence detection on the Meso Scale Discovery platform.|
|Incubation time||72 h|
|Animal models||subcutaneous tumor model|
|Body Surface Area (m2)||0.007||0.025||0.15||0.05||0.02||0.5|
|Animal A (mg/kg) = Animal B (mg/kg) multiplied by||Animal B Km|
|Animal A Km|
For example, to modify the dose of resveratrol used for a mouse (22.4 mg/kg) to a dose based on the BSA for a rat, multiply 22.4 mg/kg by the Km factor for a mouse and then divide by the Km factor for a rat. This calculation results in a rat equivalent dose for resveratrol of 11.2 mg/kg.
|Solubility||DMSO ≥100 mg/mL|
Validation of ITD mutations in FLT3 as a therapeutic target in human acute myeloid leukaemia.
Smith et al. Nature. 2012 Apr 15;485(7397):260-3. PMID: 22504184.
AC220 is a uniquely potent and selective inhibitor of FLT3 for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
Zarrinkar et al. Blood. 2009 Oct 1;114(14):2984-92. PMID: 19654408.
|Related FLT3 Products|
AMG 925 is a potent and orally bioavailable dual FLT3/CDK4 inhibitor with IC50 of 1 nM and 3 nM, respectively.
G-749 is a novel and potent FLT3 inhibitor with IC50 of 0.4 nM, 0.6 nM and 1 nM for FLT3 (WT), FLT3 (D835Y), and Mer, respectively, showing lower potency against other tyrosine kinases.
CGP52421 is a FLT3 inhibitor, which is also an metabolite of midostaurin (PKC412).
TCS 359 is a potent FLT3 inhibitor with IC50 of 42 nM.
Tandutinib (MLN518), previously known as CT53518, is an orally active multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor of FLT3, PDGFR and c-Kit.
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