In vitro: Kanamycin sulfate at the concentration above 0.0025% has a significant inhibition on the growth of B. bifidum and has no influence on the other four probiotics at incubation 12 h or 24 h. The optimum selective concentration of kanamycin sulfate in MRS media is 0.005% for selective enumeration of B.bifidum.
In vivo: The neurons damage of the DCN caused by kanamycin (500 mg/kg/day) is reversible and autophagy is upregulated in the neurotoxic course of kanamycin on DCN through JNK1-mediated phosphorylation of Bcl-2 pathway in rats. The serum BUN and Cr levels are both increased at the 1st day after the period of kanamycin administration. The neurons expressing LC3 are increased at 1, 7 and 14 days after kanamycin administration in comparison to the control group. Kanamycin treatment results in the increase of autophagy in a time-dependent manner. Kanamycin sulfate (5 mg/kg) and sodium ampicillin (10 mg/kg) administered intramuscularly (i.m.) separately, and then together, to five pony mares, and the ampicillin concentration exceeds 5 mg/mL in inflamed synovial fluid for some 2.5 h after injection, and kanamycin sulfate concentration exceeds 2 mg/mL for 7 h in the pony.
|Cell lines||spiral ganglion cells|
|Preparation method||Images of spiral ganglion cells (SGCs) in the basal turn. SGCs were stained for NF200 (red). SGCs of the basal turn in a normal cochlea and in cochleae at 2 weeks and 6 weeks after co-administration of kanamycin and furosemide.|
|Animal models||Male Sprague-Dawley rats|
|Body Surface Area (m2)||0.007||0.025||0.15||0.05||0.02||0.5|
|Animal A (mg/kg) = Animal B (mg/kg) multiplied by||Animal B Km|
|Animal A Km|
For example, to modify the dose of resveratrol used for a mouse (22.4 mg/kg) to a dose based on the BSA for a rat, multiply 22.4 mg/kg by the Km factor for a mouse and then divide by the Km factor for a rat. This calculation results in a rat equivalent dose for resveratrol of 11.2 mg/kg.
|Purity||Antibiotic Titer>750 U/mg|
|Solubility||30 mg/mL in water|
E2F1-CDK1 pathway activation in kanamycin-induced spiral ganglion cell apoptosis and the protective effect of CR8.
Liu YY, et al. Neurosci Lett. 2016 Mar 23;617:247-53. PMID: 26905670.
Nestin expression and reactive phenomena in the mouse cochlea after kanamycin ototoxicity.
Martone T, et al. Eur J Neurosci. 2014 Jun;39(11):1729-41. PMID: 24689961.
Disufide crosslinks of cystines in proteins can be reduced to cysteine residues by TCEP (tris-(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine). Unlike DTT (dithiothreitol), TCEP does not contain thiols and therefore usually does not need to be removed prior to thiol modification.
Linaclotide is a potent and selective guanylate cyclase C agonist; developed for the treatment of constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) and chronic constipation.
6-Chloropurine is used in the preparation of 9-alkylpurines through alkylation with various substituted alkyl halides in dimethyl sulfoxide.
Lanolin is a wax secreted by the sebaceous glands of wool-bearing animals and used widely in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries.
Potassium acetate is the potassium salt of acetic acid, which is a synthetic carboxylic acid with antibacterial and antifungal properties.
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