In vitro: TC-G-1008 shows selectivity over a panel of kinases (IC50s>10 μM) and does not exhibit relevant binding affinity for the related ghrelin and neurotensin-1 receptors (IC50s>30 μM). In HEK293-GPR39 cells, GPR39-C3, which is a positive allosteric modulator, activates cAMP production (downstream of Gs), IP1 accumulation (downstream of Gq), SRF-RE-dependent transcription (downstream of G12/13), and β-arrestin recruitment. GPR39-C3 induces dose- and time-dependent loss of response in cAMP production by second challenge of the compound.
In vivo: Rat and mouse plasma protein binding for TC-G-1008 is measured as 99.3% and 99.1%, respectively. TC-G-1008 is orally bioavailable in mice and robustly induces acute GLP-1 levels. Upon single oral doses of 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg of aqueous suspensions in 0.5% methylcellulose/0.1% Tween 80, TC-G-1008 achieves, between 1 and 1.5 h, maximal exposures of 1.4, 6.1, and 25.3 μM, respectively.
|Formulation||0.5% methylcellulose/0.1% Tween 80|
|Dosages||10, 30, and 100 mg/kg|
|Body Surface Area (m2)||0.007||0.025||0.15||0.05||0.02||0.5|
|Animal A (mg/kg) = Animal B (mg/kg) multiplied by||Animal B Km|
|Animal A Km|
For example, to modify the dose of resveratrol used for a mouse (22.4 mg/kg) to a dose based on the BSA for a rat, multiply 22.4 mg/kg by the Km factor for a mouse and then divide by the Km factor for a rat. This calculation results in a rat equivalent dose for resveratrol of 11.2 mg/kg.
|Solubility||100 mg/mL in DMSO|
Rho kinase-dependent desensitization of GPR39; a unique mechanism of GPCR downregulation.
Shimizu Y, et al. Biochem Pharmacol. 2017 Sep 15;140:105-114. PMID: 28619258.
Discovery and Characterization of Novel GPR39 Agonists Allosterically Modulated by Zinc.
Sato S, et al. Mol Pharmacol. 2016 Dec;90(6):726-737. PMID: 27754899.
|GJ103 sodium salt
GJ103 sodium salt is an active analog of the read-through compound GJ072.
Tubercidin (7-Deazaadenosine) is an adenosine analog, is an antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces tubercidicus.
ML-7 hydrochloride is a naphthalene sulphonamide derivative, potently inhibits MLCK (IC50=300 nM) and TRPC6 channel (IC50>10 μM).
Importazole is a small molecule inhibitor of the nuclear transport receptor importin-β.
Apoptozole is an inhibitor of the ATPase domain of Hsc70 and Hsp70, with Kds of 0.21 and 0.14 μM, respectively, and can induce apoptosis.
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