ECBN biosynthesis cluster Ani in the genome of the echinocandin B producer strain A. nidulans NRRL 8112. ECBN belongs to lipopeptide antifungal antibiotic bearing five types of direct precursor amino acids including proline, ornithine, tyrosine, threonine, and leucine. ECBN obtained by the fermentation of Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus rugulosus, is known as one of the natural cyclic hexapeptides that have a linoleoyl side chain, which inhibits a crucial enzyme in fungal cell wall biosynthesis, β-(1,3)-d-glucan synthase.
|Body Surface Area (m2)||0.007||0.025||0.15||0.05||0.02||0.5|
|Animal A (mg/kg) = Animal B (mg/kg) multiplied by||Animal B Km|
|Animal A Km|
For example, to modify the dose of resveratrol used for a mouse (22.4 mg/kg) to a dose based on the BSA for a rat, multiply 22.4 mg/kg by the Km factor for a mouse and then divide by the Km factor for a rat. This calculation results in a rat equivalent dose for resveratrol of 11.2 mg/kg.
|Solubility||10 mM in DMSO|
Enhancement of Echinocandin B Production by a UV- and Microwave-Induced Mutant of Aspergillus nidulans with Precursor- and Biotin-Supplying Strategy.
Hu ZC, et al. Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2016 Aug;179(7):1213-26. PMID: 27039401.
Efficient bioconversion of echinocandin B to its nucleus by overexpression of deacylase genes in different host strains.
Shao L, et al. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2013 Feb;79(4):1126-33. PMID: 23220968.
NSC 23766 is an inhibitor of Rac GTPase targeting Rac activation by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) with IC50 of ~50 μM in a cell-free assay; does not inhibit the closely related targets, Cdc42 or RhoA.
Budesonide is a GC steroid commonly used for the treatment of asthma and non-infectious rhinitis.
Brequinar is a potent inhibitor of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, with potent activities against a broad spectrum of viruses.
Laropiprant is a potent, selective DP1 receptor antagonist with Ki value of 0.57 nM, and exhibits > 1,000 fold selectivity over DP2 receptor (Ki=0.75 μM).
Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonists that improve insulin-mediated glucose uptake and possess beneficial vasculoprotective actions.
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