Circulating testosterone levels decline progressively with age, starting in the second and third decade of life, owing to defects at all levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis. In cohort studies, testosterone levels are associated weakly but consistently with muscle mass, strength, physical function, anaemia, BMD and bone quality, visceral adiposity, and with the risk of diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, falls, fractures and mortality.
|Body Surface Area (m2)||0.007||0.025||0.15||0.05||0.02||0.5|
|Animal A (mg/kg) = Animal B (mg/kg) multiplied by||Animal B Km|
|Animal A Km|
For example, to modify the dose of resveratrol used for a mouse (22.4 mg/kg) to a dose based on the BSA for a rat, multiply 22.4 mg/kg by the Km factor for a mouse and then divide by the Km factor for a rat. This calculation results in a rat equivalent dose for resveratrol of 11.2 mg/kg.
|Solubility||10 mM in DMSO|
Risks and benefits of testosterone therapy in older men.
Spitzer M, et al. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2013 Jul;9(7):414-24. PMID: 23591366.
Testosterone and sport: current perspectives.
Wood RI, et al. Horm Behav. 2012 Jan;61(1):147-55. PMID: 21983229.
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Lubiprostone is an orally active prostone that locally and selectively activates ClC-2 chloride channels to enhance the intestinal fluid secretion without altering the serum electrolyte levels.
Nandrolone phenylpropionate (NPP) is an anabolic-androgenic steroid. The low androgenicity and enhanced anabolic activity of NPP has shown to positively influence calcium metabolism and to increase bone mass in osteoporosis.
Testosterone phenylpropionate is a synthetic anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) and an androgen ester.
Testosterone Isocaproate help in increasing the body weight and will also help in gaining the strength and also help in losing fat in the body and gives an increase in libido, red blood cells, stamina and quick recovery after heavy training.
Androcur-treatment abolished testosterone-reduced cAMP, coupled with a changed expressional milieu of cAMP signaling elements. Results from in vitro experiments suggest that some of these effects are testosterone-AR dependent, while others could be due to disturbed LH and/or other signals.
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