CHIR-99021 (CT99021) inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β, IC50 = 6.7 nm) and GSK3α (IC50 = 10 nm), inhibits preadipocyte differentiation (IC50 = 0.3 µM), possibly by blocking induction of C/EBPα and PPARγ, and mimics Wnt signaling in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. CHIR99021 activates glycogen synthase in CHO-IR cells with EC50 of 763 nM. CHIR99201 does not exhibit cross-reactivity against cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) with 350-fold selectivity toward GSK-3β compared to CDKs.
|Cell lines||J1 mESCs or F9 mEC cells|
|Preparation method||Immunofluorescence staining The expression and subcellular localisation of β-catenin in J1 mESCs treated with 1 μM BIO or 3 μM CHIR for 24 h was detected by immunofluorescence staining. Nuclei were stained with DAPI. J1 mESCs or F9 mEC cells were fixed and permeabilized using immunostaining fixation buffer and then blocked in blocking buffer (Beyotime Institute of Biotechnology). Subsequently, cells were incubated with the indicated primary antibody overnight at 4°C, followed by three washes with washing buffer (Beyotime Institute of Biotechnology) for 5 min and then incubation with an Alexa Fluor 555-conjugated secondary antibody for 2 h at room temperature. Nuclei were stained with DAPI. Cells were photographed under an inverted fluorescence microscope (Nikon, Tokyo, Japan).|
|Animal models||Akita type 1 diabetic mice and wild-type mice|
|Dosages||50 mg/kg, daily|
|Body Surface Area (m2)||0.007||0.025||0.15||0.05||0.02||0.5|
|Animal A (mg/kg) = Animal B (mg/kg) multiplied by||Animal B Km|
|Animal A Km|
For example, to modify the dose of resveratrol used for a mouse (22.4 mg/kg) to a dose based on the BSA for a rat, multiply 22.4 mg/kg by the Km factor for a mouse and then divide by the Km factor for a rat. This calculation results in a rat equivalent dose for resveratrol of 11.2 mg/kg.
Pleiotropy of glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibition by CHIR99021 promotes self-renewal of embryonic stem cells from refractory mouse strains.
Ye, et al. PLoS One. 2012;7(4):e35892. PMID: 22540008.
|Related GSK-3 Products|
IM-12 is a potent and selective GSK-3β inhibitor with IC50 of 53 nM, which also enhances canonical Wnt signalling.
SB415286 is a potent GSK3α inhibitor with IC50/Ki of 78 nM/31 nM with equally effective inhibition of GSK-3β.
TDZD-8 is a non-ATP competitive GSK-3β inhibitor with IC50 of 2 μM; minimal inhibitory effect observed on CDK1, casein kinase II, PKA and PKC.
LY2090314 is a potent GSK-3 inhibitor for GSK-3α/β with IC50 of 1.5 nM/0.9 nM; may improve the efficacy of platinum-based chemotherapy regimens. Phase 1/2.
AZD1080 is a selective, orally active, brain permeable GSK3 inhibitor, inhibits human GSK3α and GSK3β with Ki of 6.9 nM and 31 nM, respectively.
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