In vitro: CA-074 is a synthetic analogue of E-64, a natural peptidyl epoxide that irreversibly inhibits most known lysosomal cysteine proteinases, and is developed by means of rational drug design, exploiting the dipeptidylcarboxypeptidase activity of cathepsin B. CA-074 can be used to selectively inhibit cathepsin B within living cells, as long as the experimental conditions permit significant fluid-phase endocytosis of the drug. CA-074 inhibits cathepsin B with a Ki of 2 to 5 nM, whereas the initial Kis for cathepsin H and L are about 40-200 μM. CA-074 exhibits 10000-30000 times greater inhibitory effects on purified rat cathepsin B than on cathepsin H and L.
In vivo: Intraperitoneally injection of compound CA-074 into rats potently and selectively inhibits cathepsin B activity. Intravenously administration of CA-074 immediately after the ischaemic insult saves 67% of CA1 neurons from delayed neuronal death on day 5 in eight monkeys undergoing 20 min brain ischaemia: the extent of inhibition is excellent in three of eight and good in five of eight monkeys.
|Formulation||saline containing DMSO|
|Dosages||8 mg/100 g body weight|
|Body Surface Area (m2)||0.007||0.025||0.15||0.05||0.02||0.5|
|Animal A (mg/kg) = Animal B (mg/kg) multiplied by||Animal B Km|
|Animal A Km|
For example, to modify the dose of resveratrol used for a mouse (22.4 mg/kg) to a dose based on the BSA for a rat, multiply 22.4 mg/kg by the Km factor for a mouse and then divide by the Km factor for a rat. This calculation results in a rat equivalent dose for resveratrol of 11.2 mg/kg.
|Solubility||150 mg/mL in DMSO|
Distinct cathepsins control necrotic cell death mediated by pyroptosis inducers and lysosome-destabilizing agents.
Brojatsch J, et al. Cell Cycle. 2015;14(7):964-72. PMID: 25830414.
A proteolytic cascade controls lysosome rupture and necrotic cell death mediated by lysosome-destabilizing adjuvants.
Brojatsch J, et al. PLoS One. 2014 Jun 3;9(6):e95032. PMID: 24893007.
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