In vitro: Apoptosis is a pathway of cell death orchestrated by a family of proteases called caspases. Boc-D-fmk inhibits TNFα-stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Boc-D-FMK inhibits apoptosis stimulated by TNF-α with an IC50 of 39 µM. BocD-fmk at 50 µM prevents genistein-induced apoptosis of p815 cells. Confocal microscopy shows that the release of mitochondrial apoptotic factors is inhibited by BocD-fmk. In vivo: Boc-D-FMK-fmk effectively attenuates the hepatocyte apoptosis in bile duct-ligated rats and may improve the survival rates after endotoxin challenge. A single injection of Boc-D-FMK results in longterm protection of MNs against root avulsion-induced death for more than 8 weeks and the Boc-D-FMK-treated MNs are able to regenerate their axons into an implanted PN graft and reinnervate the target muscle.
|Preparation method||Neutrophils (11.1 × 10^6 cells/mL) were cultured for 30 minutes in the presence or absence of 0.03-300 μM z-VAD-fmk or Boc-D-fmk before addition of TNFα (200 U/mL). Cells (100 μL) were added to a microtiter plate followed by an equal volume of lucigenin (0.25 mM for extracellular ROS release) or luminol (1 mM for intra- and extracellular ROS release).|
|Incubation time||30 min|
|Animal models||Male Sprague–Dawley rats|
|Body Surface Area (m2)||0.007||0.025||0.15||0.05||0.02||0.5|
|Animal A (mg/kg) = Animal B (mg/kg) multiplied by||Animal B Km|
|Animal A Km|
For example, to modify the dose of resveratrol used for a mouse (22.4 mg/kg) to a dose based on the BSA for a rat, multiply 22.4 mg/kg by the Km factor for a mouse and then divide by the Km factor for a rat. This calculation results in a rat equivalent dose for resveratrol of 11.2 mg/kg.
|Solubility||125 mg/mL in DMSO|
Effect of Boc-D-Fmk on hepatocyte apoptosis after bile duct ligation in rat and survival rate after endotoxin challenge.
Sheen-Chen SM, et al. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008 Aug;23(8 Pt 1):1276-9. PMID: 18373562.
z-VAD-fmk augmentation of TNF alpha-stimulated neutrophil apoptosis is compound specific and does not involve the generation of reactive oxygen species.
Cowburn AS, et al. Blood. 2005 Apr 1;105(7):2970-2. PMID: 15572588.
|Related Caspase Products|
Ac-DEVD-CHO is a specific inhibitor of Caspase-3 with a Ki value of 230 pM.
CA-074 is a potent inhibitor of cathepsin B with a Ki of 2 to 5 nM.
Z-YVAD-FMK is a synthetic peptide that irreversibly inhibits activity of caspase-1. The inhibitor is designed as a methyl ester to facilitate cell permeability. The product can be used for both in vitro and in vivo studies.
Z-VAD-FMK (Caspase Inhibitor VI) is an irreversible pan-caspase inhibitor.
Emricasan is a potent irreversible pan-caspase inhibitor.
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