Metoclopramide hydrochloride hydrate is a dopamine D2 antagonist that is used as an antiemetic. Metoclopramide is a dopamine receptor antagonist which has been used for treatment of a variety of gastrointestinal symptoms over the last thirty years. In various countries, metoclopramide is the antiemetic drug of choice in pregnant women. Findings provide reassurance regarding the safety of metoclopramide for the fetus when the drug is given to women to relieve nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. Evidence also supports its use for gastroparesis (poor stomach emptying) and gastroesophageal reflux disease. It appears to bind to dopamine D2 receptors where it is a receptor antagonist, and is also a mixed 5-HT3 receptor antagonist/ 5-HT4 receptor agonist.
|Animal models||Male albino Swiss mice|
|Body Surface Area (m2)||0.007||0.025||0.15||0.05||0.02||0.5|
|Animal A (mg/kg) = Animal B (mg/kg) multiplied by||Animal B Km|
|Animal A Km|
For example, to modify the dose of resveratrol used for a mouse (22.4 mg/kg) to a dose based on the BSA for a rat, multiply 22.4 mg/kg by the Km factor for a mouse and then divide by the Km factor for a rat. This calculation results in a rat equivalent dose for resveratrol of 11.2 mg/kg.
|Solubility||10 mM in DMSO|
Risk of extrapyramidal side effects comparing continuous vs. bolus intravenous metoclopramide administration: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.
Cavero-Redondo I, et al. J Clin Nurs. 2015 Dec;24(23-24):3638-46. PMID: 26373874.
Antinociception by metoclopramide, ketamine and their combinations in mice.
Mohammad FK, et al. Pharmacol Rep. 2012;64(2):299-304. PMID: 22661179.
|Related Dopamine Receptor Products|
Sulpiride is a dopamine D2-receptor antagonist. It has been used therapeutically as an antidepressant, antipsychotic, and as a digestive aid.
rac-Rotigotine Hcl is a high potency and selectivity agonist for D-2 receptor with Ki of 0.69 nM.
Promazine (hydrochloride) is a D2 dopamine receptor antagonist, belongs to the phenothiazine class of antipsychotics, used to treat schizophrenia.
|Prochlorperazine dimaleate salt
Prochlorperazine dimaleate is a dopamine (D2) receptor antagonist.
Pramipexole 2Hcl is a partial/full D2S, D2L, D3, D4 receptor agonist with a Ki of 3.9, 2.2, 0.5 and 5.1 nM for D2S, D2L, D3, D4 receptor, respectively.
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