Antiviral [herpes simplex virus (HSV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)], antibacterial, superoxide radical-scavenging, and complement-modulating properties were assessed. In general, more pronounced activities were seen with epicatechin-containing dimers for anti-HSV, anti-HIV, and radical-scavenging effects, while the presence of ortho-trihydroxyl groups in the B-ring was important in compounds exhibiting anti-HSV and radical-scavenging effects and complement classical pathway inhibition.
|Source||Can J Physiol Pharmacol (2012). Figure 6. Procyanidin B4|
|Method||AGE formation assay|
|Concentrations||50 to 100 mg|
|Results||No single biomarker could efficiently and significantly predict antiglycation activity.|
|Cell lines||RAW 264.7 cells|
|Preparation method||At 80-90% confluency, the medium was replaced with a colorless DMEM medium with antibiotics and without FBS, and then the cells were stimulated with LPS and coincubated with procyanidins and PUFAs with a final concentration for the following compounds: B1, B2, B3, and B4 (5 mg/mL or 8.64 μM), and DHA and EPA (30 μM). After 19 h of treatment, the supernatant was collected and stored at -20℃.|
|Incubation time||19 h|
|Animal models||male castrated pigs|
|Body Surface Area (m2)||0.007||0.025||0.15||0.05||0.02||0.5|
|Animal A (mg/kg) = Animal B (mg/kg) multiplied by||Animal B Km|
|Animal A Km|
For example, to modify the dose of resveratrol used for a mouse (22.4 mg/kg) to a dose based on the BSA for a rat, multiply 22.4 mg/kg by the Km factor for a mouse and then divide by the Km factor for a rat. This calculation results in a rat equivalent dose for resveratrol of 11.2 mg/kg.
Systemic absorption and metabolism of dietary procyanidin B4 in pigs.
Bittner K, et al. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2014 Dec;58(12):2261-73. PMID: 25263999.
Biological evaluation of proanthocyanidin dimers and related polyphenols.
De Bruyne T,et.al. J Nat Prod 1999 Jul;954-8. PMID: 10425115.
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