MX69 is a dual inhibitor of MDM2 and XIAP that binds to MDM2 RING protein with binding Kd values of 2.34 μM. MX69 inhibits expression of both MDM2 and XIAP in a time- and dose-dependent manner. MX69 induces ubiquitination of endogenous MDM2 in cancer cells.
Downregulation of MDM2 by MX69 is through induction of MDM2 self-ubiquitination and degradation. Half-life of MDM2 in control-treated EU-1 cells is greater than 90 min, whereas MX69 treatment decreases the MDM2 half-life to <30 min. In SK-N-SH cells with stably transfected either wild-type (WT)-MDM2 or mutant MDM2-C464A, treatment with MX69 significantly inhibits expression and increased the turnover of WT-MDM2 but not MDM2-C464A. MX69 significantly enhances the p53 half-life in WT-MDM2 but not mutant MDM2-C464A-transfected SK-N-SH cells. p53 is stabilized and accumulates in MX69-treated cells. MX69 also exhibits a significant cytotoxic effect on both ALL and NB lines(cancer cell lines), particularly those lines with MDM2 overexpression and a WTp53 phenotype.
In vivo, MX69 is well tolerated in animals due to the fact that normal cells/tissues express little or no MDM2. No evidence of toxicity after treatment with MX69 at the 100 mg/kg dose. MDM2-specific agent MX69 should not activate either on-target (e.g., p53 induction) or off-target signaling pathways in normal cells.
|Cell lines||six ALL cell lines (EU-1, EU-3, EU-6, EU-8, SUP-B13, and UOC-B1) and six NB cell lines (NB-1691, NB-1643, SH-EP1, IMR-32, SK-NSH, and LA1-55N)|
|Preparation method||The cytotoxic effect of leads is determined using the WST assay. Briefly, cells cultured in 96-well microtiter plates are treated with different concentrations of leads for a 20-hr period. WST (25 mg/well) is then added and incubation continued for an additional 4 hr, after which the optical density is read with a microplate reader.|
|Incubation time||24 h|
|Body Surface Area (m2)||0.007||0.025||0.15||0.05||0.02||0.5|
|Animal A (mg/kg) = Animal B (mg/kg) multiplied by||Animal B Km|
|Animal A Km|
For example, to modify the dose of resveratrol used for a mouse (22.4 mg/kg) to a dose based on the BSA for a rat, multiply 22.4 mg/kg by the Km factor for a mouse and then divide by the Km factor for a rat. This calculation results in a rat equivalent dose for resveratrol of 11.2 mg/kg.
|Solubility||DMSO: ≥ 60 mg/mL|
Discovery of Dual Inhibitors of MDM2 and XIAP for Cancer Treatment.
Gu L, et al. Cancer Cell. 2016 Oct 10;30(4):623-636. PMID: 27666947.
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