In vitro: Of the 78 tyrosine kinases tested, Gilteritinib (ASP2215) inhibits FLT3, leukocyte tyrosine kinase (LTK), anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK), and AXL kinases by over 50% at 1 nM with an IC50 value of 0.29 nM for FLT3, approximately 800-fold more potent than for c-KIT. Gilteritinib inhibits the activity of eight of the 78 tested kinases by over 50% at concentrations of either 1 nM (FLT3, LTK, ALK, and AXL) or 5 nM (TRKA, ROS, RET, and MER). The IC50s are 0.29 nM for FLT3 and 0.73 nM for AXL. Gilteritinib inhibits FLT3 at an IC50 that is approximately 800-fold more potent than the concentration required to inhibit c-KIT (230 nM). The antiproliferative activity of Gilteritinib is evaluated against MV4-11 and MOLM-13 cells, which endogenously express FLT3-ITD. After 5 days of treatment, Gilteritinib inhibits the growth of MV4-11 and MOLM-13 cells with mean IC50s of 0.92 nM (95% CI: 0.23-3.6 nM) and 2.9 nM (95% CI: 1.4-5.8 nM), respectively. Growth suppression of MV4-11 cells is accompanied by inhibition of FLT3 phosphorylation. Relative to vehicle control cells, phosphorylated FLT3 levels are 57%, 8%, and 1% after 2 h of treatment with 0.1 nM, 1 nM, and 10 nM Gilteritinib, respectively. In addition, doses as low as 0.1 nM or 1 nM result in the suppression of phosphorylated ERK, STAT5, and AKT, all of which are downstream targets of FLT3 activation. To investigate the effects of Gilteritinib on AXL inhibition, MV4-11 cells that expressed exogenous AXL are treated with Gilteritinib. At concentrations of 1 nM, 10 nM, and 100 nM for 4 h, Gilteritinib treatment decreases phosphorylated AXL levels by 38%, 29%, and 22%, respectively.
In vivo: In MV4-11 xenografted-mice, the concentration of Gilteritinib (ASP2215) in tumors is more than 20-fold higher than that in plasma with oral administration of Gilteritinib at 10 mg/kg for 4 days. Treatment of Gilteritinib for 28 days results in dose-dependent inhibition of MV4-11 tumor growth and induces complete tumor regression at more than 6 mg/kg. Further, Gilteritinib decreases tumor burden in bone marrow and prolonged the survival of mice intravenously transplanted with MV4-11 cells.
|Cell lines||MV4-11 and MOLM-13 cells|
|Preparation method||The effect of Gilteritinib on MV4-11 and MOLM-13 cells is assessed using the CellTiter-Glo Luminescent Cell Viability Assay. Subsequent studies are conducted to examine the effect of Gilteritinib and Quizartinib on Ba/F3 cells expressing either FLT3-ITD, FLT3-D835Y, FLT3-ITD-D835Y, FLT3-ITD-F691 L, or FLT3-ITD-F691I. MV4-11 and MOLM-13 cells are treated with DMSO or increasing concentrations of Gilteritinib (0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 nM) for 5 days, and cell viability is measured using CellTiter-Glo|
|Concentrations||0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 nM|
|Incubation time||5 days|
|Body Surface Area (m2)||0.007||0.025||0.15||0.05||0.02||0.5|
|Animal A (mg/kg) = Animal B (mg/kg) multiplied by||Animal B Km|
|Animal A Km|
For example, to modify the dose of resveratrol used for a mouse (22.4 mg/kg) to a dose based on the BSA for a rat, multiply 22.4 mg/kg by the Km factor for a mouse and then divide by the Km factor for a rat. This calculation results in a rat equivalent dose for resveratrol of 11.2 mg/kg.
|Solubility||10 mM in DMSO|
Gilteritinib, a FLT3/AXL inhibitor, shows antileukemic activity in mouse models of FLT3 mutated acute myeloid leukemia.
Mori M, et al. Invest New Drugs. 2017 Oct;35(5):556-565. PMID: 28516360.
The role of FLT3 inhibitors in the treatment of FLT3-mutated acute myeloid leukemia.
Fathi AT, et al. Eur J Haematol. 2017 Apr;98(4):330-336. PMID: 28000291.
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G-749 is a novel and potent FLT3 inhibitor with IC50 of 0.4 nM, 0.6 nM and 1 nM for FLT3 (WT), FLT3 (D835Y), and Mer, respectively, showing lower potency against other tyrosine kinases.
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