In vitro: In HaCaT (3TP-luc) and 4T1 (3TP-luc) stable cells, 12b potently inhibits the TGF-β1-induced luciferase reporter activity with IC50 of 16.5 and 12.1 nM, respectively. EW-7197 inhibits TGFβ-induced Smad2 or Smad3 phosphorylation and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in TGFβ-treated breast cancer cells. In addition, EW-7197 also abrogates TGFβ1-induced tumor cell migration and invasion in breast cells. In vivo: In rats, EW-7197 shows an oral bioavailability of 51% with high systemic exposure (AUC) of 1426 ng×h/mL and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of 1620 ng/mL. EW-7197 also shows low toxicity on the cardiovascular system, central nervous system, and respiratory system. In a mouse B16 melanoma model, EW-7197 (2.5 mg/kg daily p.o.) suppresses the progression of melanoma with enhanced cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses. EW-7197 enhances cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity in 4T1 orthotopic-grafted mice and increased the survival time of 4T1-Luc and 4T1 breast tumor-bearing mice.
|Cell lines||4T1 and MCF10A cells|
|Preparation method||Cells are seeded in 96 well plate and treated with indicated concentrations of EW-7197 in 0.2% HI-FBS medium for 72 h. Cells are dried after incubation with 10% TCA in media. Then, cells are incubated with 0.4% SRB (Sulforhodamine B) in 1% acetic acid for 30 min. After washing with 1% glacial acetic acid, bounded dye is released in 10 mM Tris buffer (pH 10.5) for 30 min. Absorbance is measured at 570 nm.|
|Incubation time||72 hours|
|Animal models||Mouse B16 melanoma model|
|Formulation||Artificial gastric fluid formulation (vehicle; ddH2O 900 mL, conc. HCl 7 mL, NaCl 2.0 g, pepsin 3.2 g).|
|Dosages||2.5 mg/kg daily|
|Body Surface Area (m2)||0.007||0.025||0.15||0.05||0.02||0.5|
|Animal A (mg/kg) = Animal B (mg/kg) multiplied by||Animal B Km|
|Animal A Km|
For example, to modify the dose of resveratrol used for a mouse (22.4 mg/kg) to a dose based on the BSA for a rat, multiply 22.4 mg/kg by the Km factor for a mouse and then divide by the Km factor for a rat. This calculation results in a rat equivalent dose for resveratrol of 11.2 mg/kg.
|Solubility||79 mg/mL in DMSO|
EW-7197 inhibits hepatic, renal, and pulmonary fibrosis by blocking TGF-β/Smad and ROS signaling.
Park SA, et al. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2015 May;72(10):2023-39. PMID: 25487606.
EW-7197, a novel ALK-5 kinase inhibitor, potently inhibits breast to lung metastasis.
Son JY, et al. Mol Cancer Ther. 2014 Jul;13(7):1704-16. PMID: 24817629.
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