Erythropoietin (EPO) is a glycoprotein cytokine secreted by the kidney in response to cellular hypoxia. EPO binds to the erythropoietin receptor on the red cell progenitor surface and activates a JAK2 signalling cascade. This initiates the STAT5, PIK3 and Ras MAPK pathways. This results in differentiation, survival and proliferation of the erythroid cell.
|Body Surface Area (m2)||0.007||0.025||0.15||0.05||0.02||0.5|
|Animal A (mg/kg) = Animal B (mg/kg) multiplied by||Animal B Km|
|Animal A Km|
For example, to modify the dose of resveratrol used for a mouse (22.4 mg/kg) to a dose based on the BSA for a rat, multiply 22.4 mg/kg by the Km factor for a mouse and then divide by the Km factor for a rat. This calculation results in a rat equivalent dose for resveratrol of 11.2 mg/kg.
Shared and unique determinants of the erythropoietin (EPO) receptor are important for binding EPO and EPO mimetic peptide.
Middleton SA, et al. J Biol Chem. 1999 May 14;274(20):14163-9. PMID: 10318834.
An antagonist peptide-EPO receptor complex suggests that receptor dimerization is not sufficient for activation.
Livnah O, et al. Nat Struct Biol. 1998 Nov;5(11):993-1004. PMID: 9808045.
Chymostatin is a chymotryptase-like serine proteases inhibitor, with Ki values of 9.36 and 13.1 nM for chymotrypsin and chymase, respectively.
|Carboxymethyl cellulose sodium
Carboxymethyl cellulose sodium is frequently used as viscous agent, paste and barrier agent.
Ceruletide is a biologically active decapeptide isolated from the skin of the Australian frog Hyla caerulea, acts as a cholecystokinin receptor agonist.
Gibberellic acid (Gibberellin) is a plant hormone stimulating plant growth and development.
25-Hydroxycholesterol (a metabolite of cholesterol) is a potent and selective suppressor of IgA production by B cells (EC50≈65 nM).
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