In vitro: DEM induces upregulation of GSH(L-c-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine) metabolism, and the downregulation of pathways of cancer, chemokine signaling, cytokine-cytokine receptor, and focal adhesion in transformed cells. DEM appears to modify microenvironment of transformed cells thereby restraining tumor cell growth. DEM is cytotoxic to the transformed cells in a concentration dependent manner. DEM at 0.25 mM decreases cell viability to 75%. The co-exposure of cells to DEM+GSHe inhibits DEM induced cytotoxicity. DEM exposure increases the ROS generation by multiple orders of magnitude in transformed cells. This is evident from the dose and time dependent increase in fluorescence intensity of CMH2DCFDA. Moreover, DEM activates MAPK pathway and DEM induced activation of ERK is found to be due to phosphorylation at Thr 202/204.
In vivo: Sperm motility and epididymal sperm count are significantly reduced in the DEM treated animals. Fertility status is also affected by DEM exposure as is evident from the percent fertility and the litter size. consequences of the oxidative stress produced by the DEM induces glutathione depletion, on the reproductive ability of male mice and modulation of the various components of the antioxidant defense system at the transcriptional level.
|Cell lines||Transformed cells (tC3H10T1/2 and tBALB/c)|
|Preparation method||A stock solution of DEM is prepared in 100% DMSO and diluted in DMEM to achieve the desired concentration with less than 0.1% DMSO in the culture wells. Briefly, cells are seeded (1 ×104 cells/well) in 96-well plates and allowed to adhere overnight. Subsequently, these cells are exposed to DEM at various test concentrations (0.05-1 mM) or co-exposed to equimolar (0.25 mM) DEM+GSHe for 24 h. Cell viability is determined by recording the OD at 570 nm in an Elisa microplate reader.|
|Concentrations||Various test concentrations (0.05-1 mM)|
|Incubation time||24 h|
|Animal models||Sprague-Dawley rats|
|Dosages||A range of doses up to a maximum of 6mmol/kg|
|Body Surface Area (m2)||0.007||0.025||0.15||0.05||0.02||0.5|
|Animal A (mg/kg) = Animal B (mg/kg) multiplied by||Animal B Km|
|Animal A Km|
For example, to modify the dose of resveratrol used for a mouse (22.4 mg/kg) to a dose based on the BSA for a rat, multiply 22.4 mg/kg by the Km factor for a mouse and then divide by the Km factor for a rat. This calculation results in a rat equivalent dose for resveratrol of 11.2 mg/kg.
|Solubility||10 mM in DMSO|
Diethyl maleate inhibits MCA+TPA transformed cell growth via modulation of GSH, MAPK, and cancer pathways.
Priya S, et al. Chem Biol Interact. 2014 Aug 5;219:37-47. PMID: 24814887.
Nrf2 transcriptionally activates the mafG gene through an antioxidant response element.
Katsuoka F, et al. J Biol Chem. 2005 Feb 11;280(6):4483-90. PMID: 15574414.
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