Clopidogrel is an effective antiplatelet agent useful for the treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular, cardiac, and peripheral arterial disease. Clopidogrel abolishes the inhibitory P2Y(AC) receptor-mediated ADP effects on prostaglandin E(1)-stimulated, cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of VASP without affecting epinephrine, thrombin, and thromboxane signaling. VASP phosphorylation is known to be closely correlated with the inhibition of platelet and fibrinogen receptor (glycoprotein IIb/IIIa) activation. Therefore, inhibition of the platelet P2Y(AC) ADP receptor and its intracellular signaling, including decreased VASP phosphorylation, is suggested as a molecular mechanism of clopidogrel action. Clopidogrel ingestion reduced the thrombus volume significantly (p < 0.05) at 100 and 2600 s-1 (39 and 51% respectively). clopidogrel reduced significantly the fibrinopeptide A plasma levels and the fibrin deposition at shear rates below 650 s-1. Clopidogrel therapy resulted in a significant reduction in soluble CD40 ligand (p=0.03), a pro-thrombotic and pro-inflammatory molecule derived mainly from activated platelets. However, clopidogrel therapy had no effect on endothelial function, arterial stiffness, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, or progenitor cells.
|Body Surface Area (m2)||0.007||0.025||0.15||0.05||0.02||0.5|
|Animal A (mg/kg) = Animal B (mg/kg) multiplied by||Animal B Km|
|Animal A Km|
For example, to modify the dose of resveratrol used for a mouse (22.4 mg/kg) to a dose based on the BSA for a rat, multiply 22.4 mg/kg by the Km factor for a mouse and then divide by the Km factor for a rat. This calculation results in a rat equivalent dose for resveratrol of 11.2 mg/kg.
|Solubility||DMSO 83 mg/mL
Water 78 mg/mL
Proton pump inhibitor and clopidogrel interaction: fact or fiction?
Laine L,et.al. Am J Gastroenterol. 2010 Jan;34-41. PMID: 19904241.
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|Suramin sodium salt
Suramin sodium salt is a polysulfonated naphthylurea that inhibits the binding of calmodulin to recognition sites on the ryanodine receptor-1 (IC50 = 4.9 μM), blocks G protein coupling to GPCRs, and non-selectively antagonizes P2 purinergic receptors (10-100 μM).
Clopidogrel (Plavix) is an oral, thienopyridine class antiplatelet agent used to inhibit blood clots in coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, and cerebrovascular disease.
GW791343 trihydrochloride is ahydrochloride salt form of GW791343, which is a non-competitive allosteric modulator of human P2X7 receptor inhibitor with pIC50 of 7.
Ticlopidine hydrochloride is a selective P2Y12 receptor antagonist.
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