Avasimibe (CI-1011) is a novel orally bioavailable ACAT inhibitor with IC50 values of 2.9, 13.9, 26.5 µM for CYP2C9, CYP1A2 and CYP2C19, respectively. Avasimibe inhibited ACAT-1 expression and cholesterol ester synthesis in glioma cell lines. Moreover, Avasimibe inhibited the growth of the cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis as a result of caspase-8 and caspase-3 activation. Avasimibe induced cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase and increased bile acid synthesis in cultured rat hepatocytes, and its administration to rats did not produce an increase in lithogenicity index of the bile. The hypolipidemic efficacy of the compound was demonstrated in cholesterol-fed as well as in non-cholesterol-fed animals. In these models, plasma cholesterol levels were reduced, mainly due to the decrease in the non-HDL cholesterol fraction. Clinical data are scarce, but in a study performed in 130 men and women with combined hyperlipidemia and hypoalphalipoproteinemia, avasimibe, 50-500 mg/day, significantly reduced plasma total triglyceride and VLDL-cholesterol. Although total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol were unchanged, it must be stressed that animal data suggest that avasimibe may have direct antiatherosclerotic activity in addition to its cholesterol-lowering effect. Avasimibe treatment can also contribute to increase plaque stability, as it reduces the accumulation of lipids in the arterial wall, inhibits macrophage infiltration into the media and reduces matrix metalloproteinase expression and activity.
|Body Surface Area (m2)||0.007||0.025||0.15||0.05||0.02||0.5|
|Animal A (mg/kg) = Animal B (mg/kg) multiplied by||Animal B Km|
|Animal A Km|
For example, to modify the dose of resveratrol used for a mouse (22.4 mg/kg) to a dose based on the BSA for a rat, multiply 22.4 mg/kg by the Km factor for a mouse and then divide by the Km factor for a rat. This calculation results in a rat equivalent dose for resveratrol of 11.2 mg/kg.
|Solubility||DMSO ≥100 mg/mL|
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