In vitro: In cells, inhibition of FGFR2 auto-phosphorylation and other proteins downstream in the FGFR pathway (FRS2α, AKT, ERK) was evident by the response to ARQ 087 treatment. Cell proliferation studies demonstrated ARQ 087 has anti-proliferative activity in cell lines driven by FGFR dysregulation, including amplifications, fusions, and mutations. Cell cycle studies in cell lines with high levels of FGFR2 protein showed a positive relationship between ARQ 087 induced G1 cell cycle arrest and subsequent induction of apoptosis.
In vivo: ARQ 087 was effective at inhibiting tumor growth in vivo in FGFR2 altered, SNU-16 and NCI-H716, xenograft tumor models with gene amplifications and fusions. ARQ 087 is currently being studied in a phase 1/2 clinical trial that includes a sub cohort for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma patients with confirmed FGFR2 gene fusions.
|Cell lines||COS-1 cells|
|Preparation method||Cells were seeded at 3000–5000 cells per well with 130 μL media in 96-well tissue culture treated plates. The cells were incubated overnight and subsequently treated with 3-fold serial dilutions of ARQ 087 starting at 100 μM. The cells were returned to a 37°C humidified incubator for 72 hours.|
|Incubation time||72 h|
|Animal models||female NCr nu/nu mice (SNU-16) or CB17 SCID mice (NCI-H716)|
|Formulation||DMA: cremophor EL: propylene glycol: 0.2 M acetate buffer, pH 5 (10:10:30:50)|
|Dosages||10 mL/kg or 0.1 mL/10 g|
|Body Surface Area (m2)||0.007||0.025||0.15||0.05||0.02||0.5|
|Animal A (mg/kg) = Animal B (mg/kg) multiplied by||Animal B Km|
|Animal A Km|
For example, to modify the dose of resveratrol used for a mouse (22.4 mg/kg) to a dose based on the BSA for a rat, multiply 22.4 mg/kg by the Km factor for a mouse and then divide by the Km factor for a rat. This calculation results in a rat equivalent dose for resveratrol of 11.2 mg/kg.
|Solubility||10 mM in DMSO|
ARQ 087 inhibits FGFR signaling and rescues aberrant cell proliferation and differentiation in experimental models of craniosynostoses and chondrodysplasias caused by activating mutations in FGFR1, FGFR2 and FGFR3.
Balek L, et al. Bone. 2017 Dec;105:57-66. PMID: 28826843.
Preclinical Activity of ARQ 087, a Novel Inhibitor Targeting FGFR Dysregulation.
Hall TG, et al. PLoS One. 2016 Sep 14;11(9):e0162594. PMID: 27627808.
|GJ103 sodium salt
GJ103 sodium salt is an active analog of the read-through compound GJ072.
Tubercidin (7-Deazaadenosine) is an adenosine analog, is an antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces tubercidicus.
ML-7 hydrochloride is a naphthalene sulphonamide derivative, potently inhibits MLCK (IC50=300 nM) and TRPC6 channel (IC50>10 μM).
Importazole is a small molecule inhibitor of the nuclear transport receptor importin-β.
Apoptozole is an inhibitor of the ATPase domain of Hsc70 and Hsp70, with Kds of 0.21 and 0.14 μM, respectively, and can induce apoptosis.
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