In vitro: 2-PMPA is a potent and selective inhibitor of GCPII, an enzyme which catabolizes the abundant neuropeptide N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAAG) to N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and glutamate. 2-PMPA demonstrates robust efficacy in numerous animal models of neurological disease. 2-PMPA is a highly polar compound with multiple negative charges causing significant challenges for analysis in biological matrices.
In vivo: Intraperitoneal administration of 100 mg/kg 2-PMPA results in maximum concentration in plasma of 275 μg/mL at 0.25 h. The half-life, area under the curve, apparent clearance, and volume of distribution are 0.64 h, 210 μg×h/mL, 7.93 mL/min/kg, and 0.44 L/kg, respectively. 2-PMPA at 250 mg/kg, in an anesthetized mouse, after an initial rise, produces a rapid decline and a striking attenuation in BOLD signals in gray matter. The signature of 2-PMPA on brain T2* signals in gray matter at both 167 and 250 mg/kg includes a significant initial rise lasting several minutes.
|Cell lines||Neuronal cultures|
|Preparation method||2-PMPA is selected to explore the protective effect on ketamine-induced neurotoxicity in these two different cell cultures. Cells are exposed to 2-PMPA (20, 50, 100 μM) half an hour before 10 μM ketamine treatment in neuronal cultures and 2 mM ketamine treatment in neuron–glia mixed cultures for 24 h. Different doses of ketamine chosen in neuronal cultures and neuron–glia mixed cultures are based on the results of cell viability tests.|
|Concentrations||20, 50, 100 μM|
|Incubation time||24 h|
|Animal models||Male Wistar rats|
|Formulation||50 mM HEPES buffered saline|
|Body Surface Area (m2)||0.007||0.025||0.15||0.05||0.02||0.5|
|Animal A (mg/kg) = Animal B (mg/kg) multiplied by||Animal B Km|
|Animal A Km|
For example, to modify the dose of resveratrol used for a mouse (22.4 mg/kg) to a dose based on the BSA for a rat, multiply 22.4 mg/kg by the Km factor for a mouse and then divide by the Km factor for a rat. This calculation results in a rat equivalent dose for resveratrol of 11.2 mg/kg.
|Solubility||28 mg/mL in water|
Bioanalytical method for evaluating the pharmacokinetics of the GCP-II inhibitor 2-phosphonomethyl pentanedioic acid (2-PMPA).
Rais R, et al. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2014 Jan;88:162-9. PMID: 24055700.
NAAG peptidase inhibitors block cognitive deficit induced by MK-801 and motor activation induced by d-amphetamine in animal models of schizophrenia.
Olszewski RT, et al. Transl Psychiatry. 2012 Jul 31;2:e145. PMID: 22850437.
7ACC2 is a new potent MCT inhibitor with IC50 of 11 nM for inhibition of [14C]-lactate influx; new antitumor treatment targeting lactate transport in cancer cells. IC50 value: 11 nM ([14C]-lactate influx).
7ACC1(DEAC; Coumarin D 1421; D 1421) selectively interfere with lactate fluxes in the lactate-rich tumor microenvironment; inhibits lactate influx but not efflux in tumor cells expressing MCT1 and MCT4 transporters.
Avibactam sodium is a covalent, reversible β-lactamase inhibitor, inhibits β-lactamase TEM-1 and CTX-M-15 with IC50 of 8 nM and 5 nM, respectively.
|AHU-377 hemicalcium salt
AHU-377 hemicalcium salt is a potent NEP inhibitor with an IC50 of 5 nM. AHU-377 is a component of the heart failure medicine LCZ696.
Isavuconazole is a moderate inhibitor of CYP3A4 and a water-soluble triazole with broad-spectrum antifungal activity.
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