In vitro: Cosolvents exponentially increased the solubility of both SIB and racIB, especially in the presence of PG and PEG 300. Glycerol was not very effective in increasing the aqueous solubilities of both compounds, whereas sorbitol solution had a minimal effect on their solubility. PG and PEG 300 increased the solubility of SIB by 400-fold and 1500-fold, respectively, whereas the rise in solubility for racIB was 193-fold and 700-fold, respectively, at 25 degrees C for the highest concentration of the cosolvents used (80% v/v) . When (S)-(+)-IBU and (R)-(-)-IBU (1 microM) were incubated with a panel of recombinant human P450s, only CYP2C9 formed appreciable amounts of the hydroxy metabolites. At a higher IBU enantiomer concentration (500 microM), additional P450s catalyzed 2-hydroxylation (CYP3A4, CYP2C8, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP2B6) and 3-hydroxylation (CYP2C19). In vivo: The presence of the CYP2C8*3 allele was found to influence the pharmacokinetics of (R)-ibuprofen in a gene-dose effect manner. Thus, after administration of 400 mg (R)-ibuprofen, the plasma half-life (95% confidence intervals) for individuals with genotypes CYP2C8*1/*1, CYP2C8*1/*3 and CYP2C8*3/*3, was 2.0 h (1.8-2.2), 4.2 h (1.9-6.5; P < 0.05) and 9.0 h (7.8-10.2; P < 0.002), respectively.
|Body Surface Area (m2)||0.007||0.025||0.15||0.05||0.02||0.5|
|Animal A (mg/kg) = Animal B (mg/kg) multiplied by||Animal B Km|
|Animal A Km|
For example, to modify the dose of resveratrol used for a mouse (22.4 mg/kg) to a dose based on the BSA for a rat, multiply 22.4 mg/kg by the Km factor for a mouse and then divide by the Km factor for a rat. This calculation results in a rat equivalent dose for resveratrol of 11.2 mg/kg.
|Solubility||10mM in DMSO|
Determination of (S)-(+)- and (R)-(-)-ibuprofen enantiomers in human plasma after chiral precolumn derivatization by reversed-phase LC-ESI-MS/MS.
Sharma P, et al. Bioanalysis. 2012 Dec;4(24):2909-27. PMID: 23244282.
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